Thursday, March 12, 2020
Economic interdependence as a driver of Regional integration in east asia Introduction Economic interdependence as a driver of Regional integration in east asia ]. Frost, E.,2008. AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s New Regionalism. London, Lynne Rienner Publishers. Ng and Yeats (2003), Major Trade Trends in East Asia. In: World Bank Policy Research Paper 3084. Washington, World Bank. Kawai, M. and T. Motonishi, 2004. Is East Asia an optimum currency area? In: Masahiro Kawai (ed), Financial interdependence and exchange rate regimes in East Asia. Japan. Policy Research Institute, Ministry of Finance, pp. 157-203 Kwack, S. 2004. An optimum currency area in East Asia: feasibility, coordination, and the leadership role.Journal of Asian economics. 15, 153-169 Xu, N., 2006. China and ASEAN: Summary of the Last Fifteen YearÃ¢â¬â¢s Economic and Trading Cooperation. China Business Update. 8.
Monday, February 24, 2020
SPECIAL EDUCATION - Essay Example As of 1992, when this study was initiated, special education class size and class mix standards in the State had not changed since the 1970s. Evidence of the need to evaluate these standards in light of changing practices included: 1) an increase in the number and types of waivers requested by local school divisions; 2) an increase in parent and advocate complaints about approved waivers; and 3) a consensus of key stakeholders that the standards might have become too rigid for determining appropriate programs for individual students. The study, conducted by The Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) in conjunction with researchers from the Virginia Polytechnic University and the University of Virginia, gathered information designed to enable the Superintendent of Schools and State Board of Education to determine those areas in which the special education standards are successful or need improvement. The project team examined two primary research questions: Investigators took a stakeholder-based approach to answering the research questions. Stakeholders were chosen to represent diverse constituencies with disparate views on the key issues and high stakes in the outcome of the program standards study. The composition of the stakeholder group was carefully balanced with the aim of promoting a common framework for understanding the issues involved in analyzing and developing policy. The larger stakeholder group of 73 members included local school board members; principals; directors of special education; general, vocational, and special education teachers; parents; students; and VDOE staff. This group provided input concerning all aspects of the study. Seventeen representatives of the larger group formed the stakeholder steering team, which was actively involved in designing the instruments, collecting data, and formulating recommendations. Study activities were carried out in three phases. During
Saturday, February 8, 2020
American desire to modernise third world countries fuelled the Vietnam war - Research Paper Example Therefore third world countries such as Vietnam rebelled because it needed more freedom and political independence (Darby 2007). Mark Berger, in his article: Ã¢â¬Å"Decolonisation, modernization and nation buildingÃ¢â¬ explains that the US fused pacification and modernization theory in its search for the appropriate combination of civil and security reforms in the hamlets of Vietnam. The US sought a coherent plan to jumpstart the economic and social development in Vietnam. The military was perceived to play a major role in modernization and pacification. This was because the US believed that security was a precondition for growth and sustained development (Escobar 2005). As such, the US built and strengthened the Vietnamese army over the period of modernization and economic intervention. The army was trained in US military bases on how to keep peace and fight insecurities in all areas of the country. The US combined efforts with the United Nations Security Council in strengthening the army. This resulted in capable armed forces that kept the country secure. With time, the Vietnamese army became powerful and needed to gain autonomy from the US policies and intervention. The army manufactured its own military weapons and was able to fund its own programs. This made it easy to wage the Vietnam War and resist US imperialism. The article further argues that modernization theory gained policy and academic prominence in Vietnam.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
The changes in britains empire from 1750 to 1900 Essay And were they all for the better?There were many changes during 1750 to 1900, the majority of which were industrial and economic and not always for the better of then or the better of now. In this essay I will list two changes that I thought significant then I will list the negative short term effects, the negative long term effects, the positive short term effects and the positive long term effects. At the end of each change I will decide whether it was an overall positive or negative change. My first change will be the development of factories as it led to nearly every other significant change from 1750 to 1900, and the cause of this particular change was one Richard Arkwright who is thought to have started the first proper factory; the Cromford mill in 1771 (ref 1)As previous factories had only been gatherings of workers (this had largely been for the textiles industry), and Arkwrights factory was built specifically for housing machinery, as the spinning frame was too large and fast for human hands, Arkwright did first of all try having it powered by horses but then he thought about using water and so invented the water frame, and with it the first factory. Now even though Arkwright upheld a few rules of decency, his successors did not. The future factory owners exploited workers shamelessly while Arkwright would give housing for all the family, a weeks holiday a year and would not allow any one under 6 to work in his factories. This is one of the short term negative impacts of the development of factories as it led to the exploitation of workers. Another short term negative effect is that coal was needed to power the new machines which first led to worse conditions in the mines and second added largely to global warming, which is also a long term negative consequence. Another long term negative outcome is that it gave some of the workers long term genetic diseases that have been passed from then to now and still affect some people with respiratory diseases. A long term positive result though is that it brought industry to maximum progress and allowed us to live in the leisure we do to day and another long term advantage is that they brought families in from the native country to live together and that developed the growth of various host cities. This is a negative short term effect as the living conditions of the migrants were appalling, but that wasnt directly because of the migrants, if the cities had made better arrangements for their migrant workers, the living conditions would have been much better, so that might not count as a short term negative. One of the positive short term effects is also the migration of people to cities as it established social relationships and made the country stronger and another positive short term effect were the skills of trade people learned in the various factories. In conclusion, from my point of view, this change was for the better, but this is my opinion and it could well be different if I was one of the factory workers who probably would have thought this was the way people were going to live for the rest of time. So this change was better for us as of now but not better for them as of then. Overall it was a good change. My second topic is on the colonisation of various countries by Britain. The first proper British colony was Ireland in the Norman period (ref 2) but that goes before 1750 so Ill focus on the 18th century colonies of Britain. The 18th century for Britain was full of change; as America had just officially declared their independence on July the second, 1776 after the American Revolution (1763-1776), and so the British Empire turned its attention to the East, India, China and later Africa. It also helped that in India the Mughal power was declining, as Britain was no match in that region against the previously mighty Mughal Empire (ref 3) The empire had granted trading rights to Britain in the 16th century. This brought most of the East under British rule and gave Britain access toÃ Indias spices and textile industry from which it profited handsomely, until the accession of William of Orange in 1689 bringing peace between the Netherlands and England. A deal between the two nations left the spice trade of the Indonesian Archipelago to the Netherlands and the textiles industry of India to England, but textiles soon overtook spices in terms of profitability, and by seventeen twenty, in terms of sales, the English company had overtaken the Dutch (ref 4). The English East India Company shifted its focus from Surat-a hub of the spice trade network-to Fort St George (later to become Madras), Bombay (ceded by the Portuguese to Charles II of England in 1661 as dowry for Catherine de Braganza) and Sutanuti (which would merge with two other villages to form Calcutta). This was a big change for the world as it imparted Britains mark on more than a quarter of the world (it was said that in the peak of its power the sun was always shining on the British empire, as the spread of the British colonies was so vast that it circled the entire globe) and it left many benefits as well as manydrawbacks. Here are a few; one of the short term consequences were the amount of lives lost in obtaining colonies and more often than not, colonies were obtained by war and an obvious direct consequence of that is loss of lives, as part and parcel of a armed conflict when countries were taken over the native civilians were treated as lower species and second class citizens. Britain started throwing people out of their own homes and taking over them and giving them to British aristocrats as slaves. This was all done because the natives were of a different skin colour and being dominated. These are two short term negative outcomes and also a long term negative affect as this was racism and it became almost fashionable to be racist at that time. A long term negative effect would be that when as aftermaths of world war two (which in itself was a result of Britains large empire as Germany wanted to compete with Britain to be a large empire itself and so tried to take over Europe) Britain was left virtually bankrupt, with insolvency only averted in 1946 after theÃ negotiation of a $3.5 billion loan from the United States,(ref 5), the last installment of which was repaid in 2006,(ref 6) and so had to withdraw from its various colonies and many countries fell into turmoil and without Britain to administer order the turmoil led to pillaging and many previously famous and rich countries hit rock bottom like Sierra Leone. Also some countries for a short time suffered radical changes and deaths like the separation of India into India, Pakistan, Bhutan and Nepal (later these split up into Sri Lanka and Bangladesh) but during that change there erupted massive religious battles between Muslims, Sikhs, Hindus as the country was being split. These were two long term negatives impacts. Two long term positives outcomes would be that it established English as a common language between most of the world and brought the world together while it was breaking geographical boundaries so there was less friction between cultures for the later years of human history in 20th century. A short term positive result would be that England brought the rest of the world up to speed with technology and armed them with powerful faster guns and showed the rest of the world the steam train and suddenly people could travel everywhere a lot faster. Over all I think that the colonisations of other countries was excellent move and the turmoil countries were left in afterward was not Britains fault as Germany made the first move and they had to be subdued, the war was unavoidable and for every progress there has to be a little sacrifice also the racism was one bad factor against many good ones so I think it was worth it. In conclusion from then two changes Ive chosen it seems the changes were for the better but for now rather than then. It seems that changes are balanced out they have sacrifices first but in the end it pays of and if I think of the other changes that Ive not mentioned it seems to be the same case. I think this is my view because Im reaping the benefits of what people worked hard to sow long ago, and the drawbacks that seem too much could not have been helped as they were unpredictable factors. But I might not have been so bearing if Id have lived then myself. Its all down to what situation you live inSo over all yes I believe that the changes were for the better. bibliography: wikipedia: factories history western world .para twoNicholas, Canny (1998). The Origins of Empire, the Oxford History of the British Empire. Oxford University Press, pg 7Anthony, Pagden (1998). The Origins of Empire, the Oxford History of the British Empire. Oxford University Press, pg 93. Niall, Ferguson (2004). Empire. Penguin, pg 19Louis, Roger (1999). The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. IV, the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press, pg 331BBC NEWS | UK | Magazine | whats a little debt between friends?
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Chad is an ethnically diverse African country that also happens to be one of the poorest countries in Africa. Chad gained its independence from France in 1960 after a sixty year rule. There are several national cultures in Chad that are based on ethnoregional and religious affiliations. There are more than 200 ethnic groups in Chad, and those in the north and east are typically Muslim; most southerners are Animists and Christians. Through their long religious and commercial relationships with Sudan and Egypt, many of the people in Chad's eastern and central regions have become more or less Arabized, speaking Arabic and engaging in many other Arab cultural practices as well (Azevedo, Graham, and Nnadozie, 1997). The people who reside in southern Chad took more readily to European culture during the French colonial period. The county of Chad is 495,752 square miles and is three times larger than California, according to the CIA World Fact Book (2010). Chad has a population of 10,543,464 as of July 2010, which is a population density of 14.2 people per square mile and a population growth rate of 2.038 percent, according to the CIA World Fact Book (2010). Chad also has an urban population of twenty-seven percent, according to the CIA World Fact Book (2010). Chad is one of the poorest countries on the African continent. Chad's economy is mostly agricultural and eighty percent of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock rising as their livelihood, cotton farming, growing sorghum, millet, groundnuts, vegetables, and fruits (Azevedo, Graham, and Nnadozie, 1997). The other twenty percent of Chad's population works in the services industry such as, manufacturing, services, and the military. According to the CIA... ...urgers,Chicken, Salads". Entrepreneur.com, Retrieved on November 19, 2010, from www.entrepreneur.com/franchises/mcdonalds/282570-0.html 2010 6. Rosensweig Brahm. (2001). Chad: Acultural Profile. Published by Anti-Racism, Multiculturalism and Native Issues (AMNI) Centre, Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto, 2001. Retrieved on November 21, 2010. Availble: www.cp-pc.ca/english/chad/chad_eng.pdf 7. Spaeder, Karen (2004) "How to Find the Best Location: A guide to scouting out a location for your food or retail business, sizing up demographics and getting the help you need". Entrepreneur.com, Retrieved November 21, 2010, from www.entrepreneur.com/startingabusiness/startupbasics/location/article73784.html 8. CIA World Fact Book (2010). Retrieved on November 22, 2010, from www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cd.html
Monday, January 13, 2020
Therefore It Is really Important to improve English skills because It Is never too late. People who are not very keen on writing English. even for them it can be a good start. Adrian: It Is very Important to start writing English as much as possible. There are some ways of improving english such as reading. tching movie or even listening to music, This should be included In the dally task and after doing It for a long time It becomes a habit and then the person will realize how he or she is going towards betterment. but each of them has their strength and weaknesses. Actually, learning English Is not as difficult as you think. YouVe got to commit yourself if you want to be successful. Jimmy: I remember what my lecturer told me that If you're lazy or not interested in learning English, you'll never break through yourself.I really want to be able to read, write and speak well in English because English Is uite important as the international language nowadays. Ya. It'll be useful when I would Ilke to geta good job or go overseas to carry on my studies or work. Okay. First of all, you must read more English materials. such as magazines and newspapers. Ã¢â¬ËOfs Not only that, English textbooks, instructions and ingredients on food packages, advertisements are also important. Jazali: When people write, they usually use Ã¢â¬Å"correctÃ¢â¬ English with a proper grammatical structure. Ya, This is not always true when people speak.That's why. So, by reading, you can learn grammatical English naturally. I Just saw an article, it says that If you choose something to read that you like, it can actually be interesting and enjoyable. Well, this came across my mind. If you like to read about football in your own language, why not read about football in English right? Ya, I agree with you. You will get information about football and improve your English at the same time. But guys, you wont have a direct impact on your speech improvement. written English differs greatly fro m English used in actual live conversations.Sometimes, Written English tends to be more formal and isn't packed with phrasal erbs like everyday English! to make English phrase, word, or word chunk stick in your mind for later use in a conversation, you need to repeat it a good number of times. Don't forget guys, You basically need to repeat the phrase and memorize it doesn't happen when you read an English fiction book! Ã¢â¬â and it By the way, music is also a fun way to work on your listening. Learn the most effective way to do it and about the challenges you face learning from music.If you love music, Music will teach you useful phrases and collocations, help you to remember new ords and old, improve your pronunciation and sharpen your listening. Hey, Zhen hao what are you doing? Im Finding lyrics. Half of a good song is what the words mean. Songs are about something. But before you can fgure out what a singer means, find out what she or he is saying. Yes, Songs are utterly dif ferentÃ¢â¬ and usually deeper, cooler and more poeticÃ¢â¬ when you know what your favourite singers are really saying. So, find the lyrics to your favourite songs, print them out and work to understand what they mean.Not only finding lyrics, u need to sing along too. In the shower, around the house or at your local karaoke box, it will help your English get better and better. You pronunciation will improve, and you will remember more and more new English. However, there are some adverse on listening English song too. Nowadays the songs getting varies through the country. Some lyrics of the songs may contain of verbal words. Yaya! Like the song sang by Akon, Ã¢â¬Ël Just had a sexl The music video of the songs also may contain of adult content such as naked and this is not suitable for young people or child to watch.Everyone *laugh* The music video of the songs also may contain of adult content such as naked and this is not suitable for young people or child to watch. On the oth er hand, the lyric's spelling on screen also might not accurate. the true spelling. So, This could be a disadvantage of learning English by music. Hey don't forget, my hobby, watching movies also will improve English. Haha.. Watching movies is a great way for you to improve your English, especially your listening and speaking skills. Films are not usually created for English language learners Ã¢â¬â they are made for native English speakers.Films are not usually created for English language learners Ã¢â¬â they are made for native English speakers. It is not a good idea to use this as your only method of learning English; it is much more advisable to study at an English school. However, I would definitely recommend all English language students to watch films in English in their spare time for additional practice that you might not get in a classroom. I agree with u Zhen hao, It helps to take the language away from the artificial classroom norm, which helps us because they get t o see/hear the language in a more natural setting.Other than that, watching movies will not only improve your listening ability, but will help you a lot on your spoken English, espcially our English intonation. Besides, when you watch a movie, you can also learn the culture reflected in the movie. But some of the parents will get mad or angry if their children wasting more time on movies. I don't think so Jimmy, this is my own experience. I like watching movies very much and it's really helpful for my English study. I really recommand you watch some typical movies. And You can watch movies and TV programs with English subtitles as ell.That helps a lot. I really think that it depends on what movies we are watching! If they are watching movies that are grammatically incorrect, I cannot see how that's going to help them with the English language. We can watch movies from the fiftys and sixtys, those movies were make with proper grammar in mind. for conclusion, So far i still strongly r ecommend you to watch more movies because it really helps to improve English. How do you think everyone, Agree with it? Yes, I agree. watching movies can be very beneficial.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Edmund S. MorganÃ¢â¬â¢s famous novel American Slavery, American Freedom was published by Norton in 1975, and since then has been a compelling scholarship in which he portrays how the first stages of America began to develop and prosper. Within his researched narrative, Morgan displays the question of how society with the influence of the leaders of the American Revolution, could have grown so devoted to human freedom while at the same time conformed to a system of labor that fully revoked human dignity and liberty. Using colonial Virginia, Morgan endeavors how American perceptions of independence gave way to the upswing of slavery. At such a time of underdevelopment and exiguity, cultivation and production of commodities were at a high demand. Resources were of monumental importance not just in Virginia, but all over North America, for they helped immensely in maintaining and enriching individuals and families lives. In different ways, people in colonies like VirginiaÃ¢â¬â¢s took advantage of these commodities to ultimately establish or reestablish their societies. Throughout the time of the Roanoke catastrophe and the hardships of Jamestown, tobacco made its grand introduction as AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s newest cash commodity that would allow success to flourish in Virginia, with a permanent English presence. Tobacco was formally popularized by a man named John Rolfe in the year 1610 and became the top resource that helped the future of this colony thrive. Tobacco did all of this by turning anShow MoreRelatedHistory: Slavery and American Freedom1104 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSummary I American Slavery, American Freedom written by Edmund S. Morgan captures the history of Virginia while keeping focusing on the social and political elements that uplifted the way of slavery. With the focus on Virginia, the book also probes the central paradox of American history: how a people could have developed the dedication to human liberty and dignity exhibited by the leaders of the American Revolution and at the same time have developed and maintained a system of labor that deniedRead MoreAmerican Slavery American Freedom By Edmond S. Morgan1196 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn his book, American Slavery American Freedom, the author Edmond S. Morgan informs us of the two strange births of American slavery and American freedom in the new colonial Virginia. In this read, we saw how the new colonial Virginia experience creates a strange enigma of early colonial freedom and slavery and how the growth of the two develops hand in hand. The title alone has the reader presuming the reading is focused primarily on American slavery, but to the contrary, it is not. In defenseRead MoreThe Speech, Slavery And Freedom : The American Paradox972 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe speech Ã¢â¬Å"Slavery and Freedom: The American ParadoxÃ¢â¬ by Edmund S. Morgan gives a very interesting insight into the American hypocrisy that is slavery. The document itself reveals a bit about its author by reading in-between the lines and foot notes. The author is a well-educated and respected male colonial America history professor of Yale University. He mentions in the text referring to specifically his field and the difficulty of finding the reasoning of slaves not being entitled to the sameRead MoreAmerican Slavery, American Freedom by Edmund S. Morgan Review2518 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesAmerican Slavery, American Freedom Book Review Edmund S. Morgans book, American Slavery, American Freedom, is a book focused on the Virginian colonists and how their hatred for Indians, their lust for money, power, and freedom led to slavery. The Virginian society had formed into, as Morgan put it, a republican society towards the end of the 18th century. This society believed in a certain view of freedom and liberty that would define America, through the realization of how this republicanRead MoreHelping the Poor Whites in the Book, American Slavery, American Freedom by Edmund S. Morgan730 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAmerican Slavery, American Freedom was written by Edmund S. Morgan, a professor at Yale University, who was born in 1916 and studied with very well-known professors at Harvard. The book is broken down into four sections: early English colonization, the beginning of a stable colony in Virginia, the indentured servant class and African slaves as a permanent labor. The first book Morgan talks about the relationship between the English colonists and the American Indians who inhabited the land previouslyRead MoreVoices Of Freedom : Slavery s Impact On African American Literature1204 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Voices of Freedom: SlaveryÃ¢â¬â¢s impact on African American Literature In the early to mid-nineteenth century, America found itself divided over the issue of slavery. The culture, traditions, and economy of southern states depended heavily on slave labor, while the northern states opposed the institution of slavery. Even though the slave trade was declared illegal in the early nineteenth century, slavery itself was not illegalized until more than a half century later. Abolitionists used powerfulRead MoreSlavery During The American Dream Of Freedom By Morgan s Book1622 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessettlement. A dream of people being liberated from oppression, in particular, Catholic oppression and slavery from the Spanish. Yet from the very beginning slavery was a part of the culture. What a huge contradiction! Or was it? Did slavery play a part in the American dream of freedom? MorganÃ¢â¬â¢s book further explores slavery in Virginia in an attempt shed a light on the subject of freedom and slavery co-existing. Those first settlers brought with them laborers (servants) and gentlemen that wereRead MoreSlavery Essay839 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSlavery Essay Slavery was ongoing in the southern states. In the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s many white slave owners believed that the African Americans were inferior to them despite the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ all men are created equalÃ¢â¬ . They were forced into labor and treated like property. The slave owners justified their behavior and believed they acted caring and conscientious to their slaves. Truthfully, however, the slaves were mostly treated very badly, as Fredrick Douglas, a black slave, testifies. There were selectRead More Abolition Essay870 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageseradicate slavery using a wide range of tactics and organizations. The antislavery movement mobilized many African Americans and some whites who sought to end the institution of slavery. Although both black and white abolitionists often worked together, the relationship between them was intricate. The struggle for black abolitionists was much more personal because they wanted to end slavery and also wanted to gain equal rights for bla cks. However, many white abolitionists only sought to end slavery andRead MoreMy Bondage And My Freedom1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"My Bondage and My FreedomÃ¢â¬ Slavery, Hardships, and Freedom? This book describes a day in a life of Frederick Douglass. In 2013, I saw a movie called Ã¢â¬â¢12 Years A SlaveÃ¢â¬â¢ reading this book and watching the movie was eye-opening for me. Ã¢â¬ËMy FreedomÃ¢â¬â¢ in this book explains that young Douglass suffered as a slave, when which he failed to flee his Ã¢â¬ËBondageÃ¢â¬â¢, then eventually he escapes that life. DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s story continues to reverberate throughout his life and the American Dream that he conquered all